World has witnessed a large scale devastation in previous global wars. But second global war was more horrible due to the usage of Nuclear arsenals on Japan. United States of America dropped Atomic Bomb on two cities of Japan Heroshima and Nagasaki on 6th and 9th August1945. Use Nuclear power in Japan leads to about 350,000 deaths in Heroshima and around 74,000 in Nagasaki. People who survived were also in pathetic condition as they prayed for death. Eyes sight of many was fully gone. Till today land of japan can not produce plants and trees due to presence of nuclear effects.
So, at the end of second world war, United Nations was established in order to bring global peace and avoid war. Although the concept of war is natural and inevitable. But this was obvious from the experience of previous wars that it always brings destruction and devastation, and humanity get defeats. So United Nations is responsible to bring peace in world and to solve disputes between and among the nations in a peaceful way.
At the same time the end of second world war leads towards nuclear arm race among states. Ex_USSR became nuclear power in 1949, UK in 1952, France in 1960 and then China in 1964. This arm race could lead to nuclear war in world. So states decided to have guarantee of being safe from horrible nuclear war.
In order to make a world more peaceful Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty was signed. It was signed in July 1968 and entered into a force in March 1970. The main agenda of the Treaty is to reduce amount of Nuclear arsenals on the planet. Currently 191 states are member of it. Some members are Nuclear powers Like USA , China, France etc. Others are not having these Nuclear arsenals but according to the treaty they are bound not make Atomic Bomb. Pakistan is not part of NPT. Some other states like Israel and India stay outside from treaty.
According to the first clause of treaty ,members are bound to put their efforts in non proliferation. States with having Nuclear weapons will not share intellectual property or nuclear material with non nuclear states. Second clause is agreement in its nature on which states agree to have an eventual withdrawal from nuclear arm race. Third one allows member states to have nuclear weapons on limited level for peaceful purposes. For example if some state is going to make Nuclear technology, it must have to declare its act for peaceful purpose or for self defense. According to the treaty if any member state will possess nuclear technology sanctions will be imposed on it.
North Korea entered into treaty in 1985 but withdraw from it in 2003. Since then it has tested its nuclear weapons for so many times.
South Sudan is also non signatory of NPT. It is world’s latest country. It appeared on world map on 2011 as it gained independence from Sudan as the outcome of 2005 agreement that ended Africa’s longest running civil war. This state never joined NPT.
Pakistan didn’t joined NPT as we have rivalry with India. So we must have Nuclear Technology as our Foe is having. This is not only for self defense but for maintaining balance of power as well. When Pakistan was working secretly on its nuclear program several sanctions were imposed on it from USA side. There was a rift in relation between USA and Pakistan as Pakistan’s strategic relevance was declined. Under Preseler’s amendment military and economic assistance to Pakistan was suspended. According to Brown’s amendment F-16 aircraft was not given to Pakistan by USA. United States Of America declared Pakistan as terrorist state. That was very hard time for Pakistan. But we didn’t give up because of preservation of sovereignty.
Iran is also working on its Nuclear Program, as a result it is also facing criticism from international society and sanctions from USA.
If we relate the Nuclear Non proliferation with global peace ,we find that this is not working at the moment. Yet decades have been passed but it is fail to achieve ts target. World is having thousand of nuclear weapons. Disarmament policy is failed. Treaty didn’t set any timeline to get rid of nuclear weapons. The main problem is that the membership of treaty is voluntarily. States are not bound to stay in treaty, whenever they feel danger ,they can exit for the sake of their national integrity. We have an example of North Korea who quit in 2003. So many states can left treaty whenever they want to do so. And as a result they can make their nuclear arsenals .In this way world will never be free from nuclear arsenals.
This treaty can leads towards discrimination of have and have not. As Nuclear powers states would have dominant influence on non nuclear states, it will create sense of supremacy and anarchy at international level.
At contemporary international world , we are still having threat of nuclear war in the presence of NPT. If we look back, at start of 2020, Iran’s General Qasim Suleimani was killed on the order of USA president Donald Trump. There was severe tensions between USA and Iran. The world was at brink of third world war as both states have their allies. In this case the war could be transform into nuclear war.
If we take example of Pakistan and India, there is continuous rift between them. Their nuclear doctrine shows that in case of any aggression they can use Nuclear weapons.
North Korea and USA are having tensions, both are nuclear powers. Rising influence of China on world’s economy and US China trade war can indulge both states in Nuclear war as well. Russia and USA are also having rivalry. So in this scenario NPT is not working. P5 must take first step in order to make nuclear free world. They must reduce or eliminate their nuclear arsenals.
As spokes man of secretary General Guterrs called NPT as essential pillar for maintaining International peace. All the states either member or non member should eliminate their arsenals in order to make this world peaceful place to live. We must set our disputes in peaceful manner and diplomatic way.